Gibson, S. (2010). Trends in energy and sugar intakes and body mass index between 1983 and 1997 among children in Great Britain. J Hum Nutr Diet.
It has been suggested that rising obesity among children is partly attributable to sugary foods and soft drinks driving an increase in energy intake (EI). Yet historical data on sugar intake are sparse. The present study calculated total sugar intake de novo among 3296 children aged 10-11 and 14-15 years in 1983 and compared EI, macronutrients and sugar sources with data from 459 children of same age in the 1997 National Diet and Nutrition Survey. Methods: Secondary analysis of 7-day weighed diet records and anthropometric data from two British surveys. Compositional data on sugars applied to individual food codes to calculate sugar intake and sources for 1983
Gibson SA (2000) Breakfast cereal consumption in young children: associations with non-milk extrinsic sugars and caries experience further analysis of data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey of children aged 1.5-4.5 years. . Public Health Nutrition 3 (2) 227-232.
This study examined the relationship between breakfast cereal consumption and non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES) intake and the possible implications of this for caries in preschool children. METHODS: Data from the 1995 UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) of children aged 1.5-4.5 years were reanalysed. Four-day weighed food records and dental examinations were available on 1450 children living in private households in Britain. Children were classified by tertiles (age-adjusted) according to the proportion of energy derived from breakfast cereals, and the amount of NME sugar from cereals. There were no significant differences in social class background between any of the groups. RESULTS: Children with diets high in breakfast cereals as a proportion of total energy (top third) had lower proportional intakes of NMES, compared with low consumers of cereals (lowest third). Consumption of sweetened cereals was positively associated with NMES intake. However, caries experience was unrelated to breakfast cereal consumption, whether presweetened or not. CONCLUSIONS: Although presweetened cereals are relatively high in NMES, their cariogenic potential is probably minimal in the circumstances in which they are normally consumed.
Gibson, S (2003) Micronutrient intakes, micronutrient status and lipid profiles among young people consuming different amounts of breakfast cereals: further analysis of data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of Young People aged 4 to 18 years Public Health Nutrition 6 (8) 815-820.
Using archived data from 1688 children in the (British) National Diet and Nutrition Survey of Young People aged 4 to 18 years, nutrient intakes and status were compared across thirds of breakfast cereal consumption (T1 to T3), adjusted for age and energy intake. Cereals provided on average 2%, 6% and 12% of energy in T1, T2 and T3, respectively, for boys; 1%, 4% and 10%, respectively, for girls. RESULTS: Intakes of iron, B vitamins and vitamin D were around 20-60% higher in T3 compared with T1, with significant linear relationships observed for iron, thiamin, riboflavin and folate (T1<T2<T3). After excluding low energy reporters and the unwell, 14% of girls had iron intakes below the Lower Reference Nutrient Intake and this varied fivefold between T1 and T3 (27%, 12% and 5%; P=0.0001). High consumers of breakfast cereals (T3) had better folate, vitamin B12 and riboflavin status and lower total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. There was also an association with thiamin and vitamin B6 status in girls. However, iron status (haemoglobin, ferritin and transferrin saturation) was not significantly different between groups, possibly due to lower meat intakes in T3. Total iron intakes were within tolerable levels (maximum of 32 mg day(-1) in one girl taking supplements). CONCLUSIONS: The nutritional benefits of breakfast cereals are demonstrated in status measurements as well as in nutrient intakes in this study. Concerns about excessive iron intakes from fortification appear unjustified.
Sig-Nurture is based in Guildford, UKTelephone / Fax: 01483 838018 (Int: 44 1438 838018)